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Conclusion: The present study revealed that prolonged and frequent exposure to EMFs from mobile phone use can cause damage to the outer hair cells, especially in the basal turn of the cochlea, which can be detected by otoacoustic emission test and can subsequently lead to high frequency hearing loss. Next article. Previous article. Table of Contents. Related articles Electromagnetic radiations mobile phone radiofrequency waves.

Programme Overview

All the courses are self-paced, which means that individual learners can decide how long to spend on each lesson, and can start and stop at their convenience. If they have to hang up or log off in the middle of a lesson, they are able to start from where they left off when they call or log in again. Learners do not lose their progress or information, even when they switch from using Cell-Ed on a tablet at the library to a flip phone back at their home, because of a feature called cross-platform compatibility. If they want to practise what they have learnt, learners can repeat and revise any lesson at any time.

Personalized support from a live coach. Cell-Ed is not merely a platform that offers various courses via mobile devices. Rather, it offers learners the opportunity to engage in interactive and supported learning with help from live coaches. When learners register with Cell-Ed, a live coach is automatically assigned to them. Hence, whenever a learner encounters problems and difficulties with a lesson, he or she can ask for help and guidance from his or her live coach via a simple SMS or phone call.

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Highly relevant and learner-friendly lessons. Likewise, learners are assigned to different courses based on their learning needs and level of competency. As a result, the learning content is relevant and interesting to them, and they are better motivated to continue with their studies. While on the app, learners can also track their own progress easily. Moreover, all the courses contain micro or bite-sized audio lessons, which last only one to three minutes because research shows that adults learn more effectively in short, easily digestible bursts Evans, In this way, low-literate adult learners become more focused, motivated and effective in the learning process.

Cell-Ed reaches potential learners by working closely with its community-based customers, e. These organizations spread information on the Cell-Ed programme and its access codes within their institutions.

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Adults who want to improve their skills via Cell-Ed can register by calling the Cell-Ed service number or downloading the Cell-Ed app. While registering, learners take an automated assessment test to gauge their literacy levels and learning needs.


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Based on the results of this test, learners are assigned to specific courses and a live coach, and can immediately begin to learn. All coaches must understand how the Cell-Ed system functions, both pedagogically and technologically, and be open and willing to help students as issues arise. Many coaches are full-time, but additional support is also provided by coaches who work part-time and are paid at an hourly rate. The number of part-time coaches varies depending on customer demand.

Once they are recruited, new coaches attend a one-day orientation training course delivered by a core team of certified teachers. A weekly check-in is conducted via phone calls and emails where coaches discuss their work and raise any issues that require support and guidance.

Coaches are also encouraged to reach out to the expert team in between check-ins with any questions or issues they may have. The LMS makes it possible to gain comprehensive and useful data on the use of the Cell-Ed platform and the progress of each individual learner.

Through this system, the learning progress of individual learners can be measured by comparing the results of assessments taken by learners before and after each course. Cell-Ed monitors and evaluates its programme by analysing this LMS-generated information. This system is also helpful for motivating learners and offering them personalized guidance. For instance, when they have made progress, learners immediately receive positive texts and emojis generated by the system. When individuals struggle, the system identifies these learners and helps them to understand grammatical points and concepts by sending them auto-texts.

If a learner still faces difficulties, a Cell-Ed live coach follows up and provides one-to-one support via SMS or phone calls. Upon successful completion of each level, learners receive individual certificates as a way to recognize and celebrate their efforts and achievements. Since , Cell-Ed has reached more than 10, non-literate and low-literate adults in the USA, and by it will reach more than 20, learners outside the USA.

To date, Cell-Ed has logged over 1 million minutes of teaching, with more than , text messages exchanged between learners and Cell-Ed. The efficacy of Cell-Ed in literacy learning has been corroborated by the results of a competition organized by a market-leading assessment company for digital educational products.


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In a four-month trial period involving 1, learners, Cell-Ed received the highest overall score of 91 points, ahead of five main competitors; Cell-Ed also outperformed its competitors by an average of 20 percentage points in the engagement and user experience categories. Because of its outstanding work and immense contribution toward adult literacy and education, Cell-Ed has gained recognition from many organisations and institutions, for example:. Beyond literacy skills, Cell-Ed has greatly empowered its learners in their private and professional lives, as reflected in the following testimonies from Cell-Ed learners and customers.

I have more self-confidence and my children no longer have to go to the store with me to interpret.

Empirical and Theoretical Framework

I feel more liberated because I can do it alone now and I do not need to have someone by my side, or ask someone passing by to do it for me. But now I can do it in English. In this age of mobile technology, developers have more experience in creating programmes for smartphones. However, Cell-Ed must be accessible to learners with all types of basic phone, feature phone or smartphone.

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Therefore, developing a platform that is compatible with every phone can be a challenge for programme developers, who are often comfortable administering online learning and app-based mobile programs, but not text-based solutions. Individual learners have varied demands. Sometimes it is challenging for Cell-Ed to develop new and additional courses that meet their vast range of special needs. Generally there is limited funding, both government and private, for adult and continuing education, and less emphasis is placed on non-formal adult education, especially for socially and economically marginalized populations.

There has been a long-term bias against applying education technology development to learning programmes and content designed to meet the needs of low-literate and low-skilled populations. As Cell-Ed expands its work with various customers and partners, it is clear that a high demand for essential skills training spans all industries. Thus, it is impossible to focus only on one industry, such as manufacturing, or just one learning area, such as literacy. Rather, Cell-Ed must be nimble and responsive to meet the various needs of different organizations and companies with the right content.

This enables both Cell-Ed and its customers to grow together, achieve common goals and mutually benefit. This means customers are better equipped with the necessary information to use Cell-Ed. Moreover, the onboarding package can be an effective way to market Cell-Ed to potential customers. At the same time, the majority of Americans do not think it is generally acceptable to use cellphones in restaurants or at family dinners. Most also oppose cellphone use in meetings, places where others are usually quiet such as a movie theater , or at church or worship service.

In general, younger age groups are more likely to view cellphone use in a variety of situations as generally acceptable, and men are more likely than women to say that phone use in almost all of these settings is OK. A more detailed overview of each situation follows:. Notably, this is the only activity for which young adults ages 18 to 29 are not necessarily more accepting than older age groups. For almost all of the other activities we asked about, smartphone owners are more likely to say that cellphone use in these situations is acceptable.

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Along with using a phone at a meeting or at a movie theater, this is one of the situations that the vast majority of Americans agree are off-limits to cellphone use. At the same time, younger adults are generally more permissive than their elders about cellphone use in most of these situations.


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As the accompanying table shows, a majority of all age groups agree that it is generally acceptable to use a phone in three general public situations: when walking down the street, while on public transportation, and while waiting in line. The vast majority of Americans — including young adults — do not think it is acceptable to use phones at a family dinner, during a meeting, at a movie theatre, or at church or worship service.